Best Tap Water in the US: A Comprehensive Guide

Best Tap Water in the US

When it comes to tap water in the United States, not all sources are created equal. Drinking water quality varies significantly from state to state, and even from city to city. But fear not, water enthusiasts! We’ve delved into the data to bring you some of the best tap water in the US in 2023.

Several factors contribute to the quality of drinking water, including the presence of contaminants, regulatory controls, and the source of water. Some states have been recognized for their exceptional tap water quality, such as Oregon, Massachusetts, South Dakota, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Kansas, Missouri, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Hawaii. While these states consistently rank high in terms of quality, there are also standout cities known for their pristine water supply.

Best Tap Water in the US

In addition to these top-ranking states, there are cities that pride themselves on their clean municipal water systems. For example, Emporia, Kansas has gained recognition for its award-winning tap water at a tasting competition in Berkeley Springs. Determining the best tap water involves evaluating various factors, such as risk scores based on EPA data, the presence of contaminants, and the local infrastructure for keeping water resources safe. As you pour your next glass of water, know that there are indeed cities and states in the US providing clean, refreshing tap water for their residents to enjoy.

Top States for Tap Water Quality

New Hampshire

New Hampshire is known for its high-quality tap water, thanks to the state’s strict water regulations and natural resources. The majority of New Hampshire’s drinking water comes from groundwater sources, and the state invests in protecting these water resources to maintain top water quality standards.


Oregon’s tap water quality ranks high due to the state’s abundant water resources and rigorous water quality monitoring systems. The main sources of Oregon’s drinking water are groundwater and surface water from rivers, and extensive testing ensures the water meets or surpasses federal and state guidelines.


Minnesota is another state with exceptional tap water quality, primarily because of the state’s ample freshwater resources and advanced water treatment facilities. The state’s efforts to preserve and protect its water sources and infrastructure play a significant role in providing clean and safe drinking water to its residents.


Maine’s tap water quality is noteworthy due to the state’s pristine water sources, like lakes and rivers, and the rigorous water quality regulations enforced by the government. The state takes extra precautions to ensure that its water meets or exceeds the Safe Drinking Water Act standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

South Dakota

South Dakota is known for its clean tap water quality, thanks in part to its plentiful water sources and conscientious water management practices. The state’s primary sources of drinking water are groundwater and surface water, and it maintains strict regulations to guarantee the water’s safety and cleanliness for its residents.


Wisconsin is another state with impressive tap water quality, due in large part to the abundance of freshwater lakes and rivers in the area as well as stringent water quality regulations. Home to one of the largest freshwater systems in the world, the Great Lakes, Wisconsin takes pride in maintaining its reputation for clean and safe drinking water.

Contaminants and Health Risks

Tap water in the United States is generally considered safe to drink. However, various contaminants can still pose health risks. In this section, we’ll discuss some of the most common contaminants found in tap water and their potential effects on human health.


Lead is a toxic metal that can cause severe health problems, especially in children. Symptoms of lead poisoning include developmental delays, learning difficulties, and irritability. In adults, lead exposure can lead to high blood pressure, kidney problems, and reproductive issues. Corroded water pipes are a common source of lead in drinking water.


Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that can contaminate groundwater. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water can cause skin, bladder, and lung cancer, as well as other health issues such as vascular and respiratory diseases.

PFAS (Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances)

PFAS are a group of man-made chemicals that have been linked to adverse health effects, including decreased fertility, increased cholesterol levels, and an increased risk of certain cancers. At least 2,337 communities in 49 states have drinking water known to be contaminated with PFAS, according to a January analysis by the Environmental Working Group (EWG).


Nitrates are chemicals that can seep into groundwater from natural sources or from fertilizers applied to agricultural land. High levels of nitrates in drinking water can cause methemoglobinemia, also known as “blue baby syndrome,” a condition that affects infants and can lead to difficulty breathing and even death.


Pesticides used on crops and lawns can contaminate water supplies through runoff and leaching. Long-term exposure to pesticides in drinking water can cause neurological and reproductive issues, as well as increased risk for certain types of cancer.


Some common waterborne pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites, can cause illness when ingested. Symptoms of waterborne illnesses can include stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, fever, and kidney failure. Infectious diseases such as hepatitis can also occur from contaminated water.

Water Treatment and Monitoring

Filtering Processes

Water treatment plants in the US use various filtering processes to ensure safe and clean tap water. These processes include:

  • Coagulation and Flocculation: This involves adding chemicals to the water, which trigger the formation of tiny solid particles called floc. These particles attract dirt and other contaminants.
  • Sedimentation: Floc particles become heavy and settle to the bottom of the water supply. This step removes most of the larger contaminants.
  • Filtration: The water then flows through filters made of sand, gravel, or charcoal. These filters capture and remove smaller particles, such as bacteria and other microorganisms.
  • Aeration: Some plants also add air to the water, which helps remove volatile organic compounds and other chemicals that can affect water quality.

Disinfection Methods

To kill any remaining bacteria, viruses, or other pathogens, water treatment plants use various disinfection methods, such as:

  • Chlorination: Adding chlorine to the water is a common method for eliminating microorganisms. The chlorine reacts with the water to form hypochlorous acid, which is an active disinfectant.
  • Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection: UV light can inactivate harmful pathogens by damaging their DNA. This method is often used alongside other disinfection processes and does not add chemicals to the water.
  • Ozonation: Ozone gas can effectively kill a wide range of bacteria and viruses. It is a powerful oxidizing agent and leaves no harmful byproducts. However, it is more expensive than chlorination.

Quality Control

Quality control is critical for maintaining clean and safe tap water. Water treatment plants must adhere to strict Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, which regulate various parameters, including:

  • Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs): The EPA sets MCLs for over 90 contaminants in drinking water. These limits are based on the potential health risks associated with each substance.
  • Treatment Techniques: When specific MCLs are not feasible, the EPA establishes treatment techniques to control contaminants effectively.
  • Monitoring and Reporting: Water systems must regularly monitor and report their water quality, ensuring compliance with EPA standards.

Testing and EPA Standards

Water systems in the US must conduct regular testing to maintain compliance with the EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Act. This testing includes:

  • Microbiological Testing: Routine sampling and laboratory analysis for bacteria, viruses, and other organisms that could pose health risks.
  • Chemical Testing: Monitoring levels of various chemicals, including disinfection byproducts and contaminants from industrial activities or agricultural runoff.
  • Radiological Testing: Screening for radioactive substances that could potentially harm human health.

For more information about EPA standards and regulations, please visit the EPA’s Drinking Water website.

Water Sources and Infrastructure


Wells are one of the primary sources of drinking water in the United States. They tap into underground aquifers to provide a steady supply of fresh water. Many states, such as Oregon and South Dakota, rely heavily on well water for their drinking water needs. The quality of well water is dependent on the geological formations, recharge rates, and water table levels. Regular testing and monitoring of well water is essential to ensure its safety and cleanliness.


Rivers have been a vital source of water for centuries, and they continue to play an important role in providing drinking water across the United States. States like Massachusetts and Minnesota get a significant portion of their tap water from rivers. The quality of river water is affected by multiple factors, including weather patterns, upstream industrial and agriculture activities, and urban runoff. Proper treatment and filtration methods are crucial to ensure the river water is safe for consumption.


Groundwater is an essential water source for many states, such as New Hampshire, Kansas, and Rhode Island. It’s the water found beneath Earth’s surface, often in underground reservoirs called aquifers. Groundwater is generally clean and safe for drinking due to natural filtration processes as it flows through soil and rocks. However, contamination can still occur due to human activities, making regular monitoring and testing vital for maintaining its quality.

OLD Pipes

The water infrastructure in the United States includes an extensive network of pipes that transport water from the source to the consumer. However, some of these pipes are old, which could lead to water quality issues. For instance, lead pipes used in older infrastructure can cause contamination as they corrode, leading to potential health risks. It’s crucial to invest in upgrading and maintaining water infrastructure, as the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law has done by allocating over $50 billion to EPA for the improvement of drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater infrastructure.

By understanding and addressing the unique challenges associated with each water source and infrastructure component, we can ensure the ongoing availability of safe, clean tap water throughout the United States.

Comparing Tap Water to Bottled Water

Taste and Minerals

When considering taste and mineral content, tap water can vary depending on the source and treatment methods used by local municipalities. It typically contains essential minerals like magnesium and calcium, which are beneficial to our health. On the other hand, bottled water often lacks these minerals, as many brands use filtration processes that remove them. However, some bottled water companies add minerals back into the water to improve taste and health benefits.

Environmental Impact

The environmental impact of both tap and bottled water should not be overlooked. Bottled water production and transportation contribute significantly to carbon emissions and plastic waste. In contrast, tap water has a lower environmental footprint as it’s distributed through existing infrastructure. Also, consider that using refillable bottles reduces plastic waste compared to single-use plastic bottles for bottled water. The Environmental Working Group (EWG) further recommends filtering tap water to reduce contaminants and improve taste, making it a more eco-friendly choice.

Cost and Convenience

From an economic standpoint, tap water is considerably cheaper than bottled water. According to some estimates, bottled water costs almost 2,000 times more than tap water. While bottled water offers the convenience of being portable and readily available, the long-term cost savings of using tap water are undeniable. Investing in a reusable bottle and home water filter can ultimately provide a comparable experience to bottled water at a fraction of the cost.

Availability and Safety

The majority of Americans have access to clean tap water, making it a widely available option. However, it’s essential to consider the quality and safety of your local tap water, as this can vary from state to state. The EWG provides a comprehensive database of tap water quality information that can help you determine if your area’s tap water is safe to drink. If you find that your tap water quality is low, bottled water might be a better option. However, always opt for brands with a reputation for quality and transparency.

Best Cities for Tap Water in the US


Denver is known for its high-quality tap water, which is sourced primarily from the mountains. The city’s water is treated through a thorough process to ensure optimal taste and safety. With pristine water sources and advanced filtration methods, Denver’s tap water stands out as one of the best in the country.


Chicago’s tap water is both clean and delicious, thanks to the city’s location near Lake Michigan. The local water utility takes great care in treating and distributing this precious resource. Through extensive testing and monitoring, Chicago consistently delivers high-quality tap water to its residents.

New York City

New York City boasts some of the finest tap water in the country. Sourced from protected reservoirs and lakes in upstate New York, the city’s water requires minimal treatment before reaching consumers. The city’s efforts to keep the water source clean and well-maintained contribute to the excellent taste and quality of New York City tap water.


Manchester, New Hampshire, is known for offering clean, refreshing tap water. The city has invested heavily in protecting its water sources and preserving its infrastructure, which results in top-notch water quality. The commitment to water safety and cleanliness contributes to Manchester’s reputation as a city with great tap water.


Louisville, Kentucky, offers high-quality tap water to its residents. The city’s water treatment plants employ advanced techniques to ensure the safety and taste of tap water. Louisville’s dedication to maintaining strong water infrastructure and careful monitoring of water quality makes it a standout city for tap water in the US.

Fort Collins

Fort Collins, Colorado, is known for its clean and tasty tap water. The city’s water comes from pristine mountain sources and goes through a robust treatment process. Their commitment to water management and safety results in Fort Collins being recognized for providing some of the best tap water in the US.

Oklahoma City

Oklahoma City’s tap water is of high quality, thanks to the city’s rigorous water treatment standards. The municipality sources its water from lakes and reservoirs, ensuring a clean supply. Oklahoma City’s commitment to water quality management and infrastructure maintenance contribute to the excellent quality of its tap water.


Macon, Georgia, delivers clean and refreshing tap water to its residents. The city has made significant investments in maintaining and improving its water infrastructure. These efforts, combined with a focus on water treatment processes, have resulted in Macon being considered a city with high-quality tap water.


Memphis, Tennessee, boasts some of the best tap water in the United States. The city’s water is sourced from underground aquifers, which are naturally filtered through layers of sand and clay. This natural filtration, combined with robust water treatment processes, ensures that Memphis’s tap water remains clean and delicious for its residents.

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